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Research and Reviews

Research and published reports using Alpha-Stim® technology are listed by primary investigator, title and year in chronological order with the most recent publication listed first. To see these reports sorted by category, use the navigational bars on the left for pain, anxiety, insomnia or depression.

Randomized Controlled Trials

Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana, Jensen, Mark P., Richards, J. Scott, Holmes, Sally Ann, Parachuri, Rama, Lashgari-Saegh, Shamsi and Price, Larry R. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 34(3):285-296, 2011.

Shultz, Jennifer C. The effects of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on attention: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled investigation. Doctoral dissertation. The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 106 pages; 2010.

Rintala, Diana H., Tan, Gabriel, Willson, Pamela , Bryant, Mon S., and Lai, Eugene C. H. Feasibility of Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Pain in Persons with parkinson’s disease. Parkinson's Disease. 8 pages, 2010

Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Reducing Sheriff’s Officers’ Symptoms of Depression Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES): A Control Experimental Study. The Correctional Psychologist, 41(1):9-15, 2009

Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and the reduction of stress symptoms in a sheriff’s jail security and patrol officer population: a pilot study. American Jails, 22(5): 32-38, 2008

Kim, Hyun Jung, Kim, Woon Young, Lee, Yoon Sook, Chang, Moon Seok, Kim, Jae Hwan, and Park, Young Cheol The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Preoperative Anxiety and Hemodynamic Responses Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 55(6): 657- 661, 2008

Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation to Treat Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 43(4):461-474, 2006. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006

Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, Larry The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; Volume 8, Number 2

Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The Treatment of Fibromyalgia with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 7(2):72-78, 2001. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999

Schroeder, M.J., and Barr, R.E. Quantitative Analysis of Electroencephalogram During Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Clinical Neurophysiology. 112:2075-2083, 2001. Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin, 191 pages, 1999

Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K*, Bruce J*, Slauterbeck J., Texas Tech University Health Scie The Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Postoperative Pain After Patellar Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000

Winick, Reid L. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES): A Safe and Effective Low Cost Means of Anxiety Control in a Dental Practice General Dentistry, 47(1):50-55, 1999

Heffernan, Michael The Effect of Variable Microcurrents on EEG Spectrum and Pain Control Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(10):4-11, 1997

Heffernan, Michael Comparative Effects of Microcurrent Stimulation on EEG Spectrum and Correlation Dimension Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 31(3):202-209, 1996

Voris, Marshall D., and Good, Shirley. Treating Sexual Offenders Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Medical Scope Monthly, 3(11):14-18, 1996

Voris, Marshall D. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Among Outpatient Psychiatric Patients, Impulse Control Parolees and Pedophiles Delos Mind/Body Institute, Dallas and Corpus Cristi, TX, Pp. 1-19, 1995

Heffernan, Michael. The Effect of a Single Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Multiple Stress Measures The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 147:60-64, 1995. Presented at the Eighth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux Switzerland, February 1996and Patients

Overcash, Stephen J, and Siebenthall, Alan. The Effects of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and Multisensory Cognitive Therapy on the Personality and Anxiety Levels of Substance Abuse Patients. American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(2):105-111, 1989.

Zimmerman, Stephen I, & Lerner, Fred N. Biofeedback and Electromedicine Reduce the Cycle of Pain Spasm Pain in Low Back Patients Medical Electronics, 117:108-120, June 1989. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987

Roth, Peter M, & Thrash, William J. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Controlling Pain Associated with Orthodontic Tooth Movement American Journal of Orthodontics, 90(2):132-138, 1986

Brotman, Philip Low-intensity Transcranial Electrostimulation Improves the Efficacy of Thermal Biofeedback and Quieting Reflex Training in the Treatment of Classical Migraine Headache American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(5):120-123, 1989. Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 117 pages, 1986

Gibson, Thomas H. and O'Hair, Donald E Cranial Application of Low Level Transcranial Electrotherapy vs. Relaxation Instruction in Anxious Patients American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987. Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology, 152 pages, 1983.

Open Clinical Trials

Liu Yanmin, Zhang Guiqing qEEG Study on the Treatment of ADHD with CES [J/CD]. Chinese Journal of Clinicians (Electronic Edition) 2011;5(8):2462-2463.

Tan, Gabriel, Dao, Tam K., Smith, Donna L., Robinson, Andrew and Jensen, Mark P. Incorporating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Therapies to Expand Psychological Services to Veterans Suffering From Chronic Pain. Psychological Services, 7(3):148–161, 2010

Holubec, Jerry T Cumulative Response From Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) for Chronic Pain Practical Pain Management, 9(9):80-83, 2009

Eidelman, William S. Control of Cigarette Cravings with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation The Townsend Letter for Doctors, 311(6): 81-85, 2009

Bystritsky, Alexander, Kerwin, Lauren and Feusner,Jamie . A Pilot Study of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69:412-417, 2008

Tae-Kyu Lee, Kwan-Sung Lee, Shin-Soo Jeun, Young-Kil Hong, Chun-Kun Park, Joon-Ki, Moon-Chan Kim The control of chronic pain using Microcurrent Electrical Therapy and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation From the Department of Neurosurgery, Kangnam St. Mary’s Hospital, College Of Medicine, and The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Presented at the Korea Society for Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery April 14, 2004

Kulkarni, Arun D. and Smith, Ray B. The Use of Microcurrent Electrical Therapy and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in Pain Control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2(2):99-102, 2001

Overcash, Stephen J. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in Patients Suffering from Acute Anxiety Disorders American Journal of Electromedicine, 16(1):49-51, 1999

Smith, Ray B, & Shiromoto, Frank N. The Use of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation to Block Fear Perception in Phobic Patients Journal of Current Therapeutic Research

Mechanistic Studies

Feusner, J. D., Madsen, S., Moody, T. D., Bohon, C., Hembacher, E., Bookheimer, S. Y. and Bystritsky. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on resting state brain activity. Brain and Behavior. Pp 1-10, 2012.

Feusner, Jamie, Moody, Teena, Hembacher, Emily, Madsen, Sarah, Bookheimer, Susan, Bystritsky, Alexan Effects of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Brain Activity in the Resting State Poster presented at the New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit (NCDEU) 2010 50th Anniversary Meeting: Learning from the Past to Advance the Future of Mental Health Treatment. Co-sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology (ASCP). June 14 – June 17, 2010 in Boca Raton, Florida

Kennerly, Richard Changes in Quantitative EEG and Low Resolution Tomography Following Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Ph.D. Dissertation, the University of North Texas. 529 pp., 81 tables, 233 figures, 171 references, 2006

Kennerly, Richard QEEG Analysis of Cranial Electrotherapy: A Pilot Study Journal of Neurotherapy (8)2, 2004. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation annual conference, September 18-21, 2003 in Houston, Texas

Case Series and Case Reports

Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA, Platoni KT. Efficacy of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Anxiety, PTSD, Insomnia and Depression: US Military Service Members and Veterans Self Reports. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Chinese Society of Psychiatry; co-sponsored by the Chinese Medical Association, Psychiatry Branch of the Chinese Medical Association and the Nanjing Brain Hospital. October 18-21, 2012 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Click the link below to read the above referenced poster as presented in Chinese.

Alfred G. Bracciano, Wen-Pin Chang, Stephanie Kokesh, Abe Martinez, Melissa Meier & Kathleen Moore. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study of Two Military Veterans. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16(1): 60-69, 2012.

Annibali, Joseph Case of the Week: Jeff – Bipolar Disorder and More Published online at, April 22, 2010

Bracciano, Albert G., Kokesh, Stephanie, Martinez, Abe, Meier, Melissa, and Moore, Kathleen. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Poster presented at Creighton University St. Albert’s Day, Omaha, Nebraska, March 31, 2009

Mellen, Ronald R. and Mitchell, Stephanie. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation: A Case Study he Correctional Psychologist, 40(4):4-8, 2008

Childs, Allen and Price, Larry. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Reduces Aggression in Violent Neuropsychiatric Patients Primary Psychiatry, 14(3):50-56, 2007. Presented at the American Psychiatric Association 160th Annual Meeting: Addressing Patient Needs. San Diego, California, May 23, 2007

Childs, Allen Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Reduces Aggression in a Violent Retarded Population: a Preliminary Report The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17(4): 548-551, 2005

Overcash, Stephen The Effect of ROSHI Protocol and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on a 9-year-old Anxious, Dyslexic Male with Attention Deficit Disorder: A Case Study Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2):63-77, 2005

Plotnick, Stephen E. Finding Hope: Alpha-Stim 100 May Help Clinicians Yield Better Fibromyalgia Treatment Results Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation, P. 82, May 2005

Frick, Ava Microcurrent Electrical Therapy Heals a Recalcitrant Wound in a Horse Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 25(11): 418-422, 2005. Presented at Western Veterinary Conference, Las Vegas, NV, February 24, 2005

Smith, Ray B. Is Microcurrent Stimulation Effective in Pain Management? An Additional Perspective. American Journal of Pain Management, 11(2):62-66, 2001

Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel & Marchant, Jeremy Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the Horse DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January, 2000

Alpher, Elliott J., and Kirsch, Daniel L. Traumatic Brain Injury and Full Body Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Patient Treated With Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation American Journal of Pain Management, 8(4):124-128, 1998. Presented at the Ninth Annual Clinical Meeting of the American Academy of Pain Management, Atlanta, Georgia, September, 1998.

Bauer, William Electrical Treatment of Severe Head and Neck Cancer Pain Archives of Otolaryngology, 109(6):382-383, 1983

Meta-Analyses, Commentaries and Review Articles

Novakovic, Vladan, Sher, Leo, Lapidus, Kyle AB,Mindes, Janet, Golier, Julia A, and Yehuda,Rachel. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder. European Journal of Pyschotraumatology, 2011, 2: 5609.

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Marksberry, Jeffrey A. Advances in Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Practical Pain Management, 11(3):77-81, 2011.

Holleran-Steiker, Lori K, Machemehl-Helmly, Pam, Clements, Todd and Earthman, Brian New and Promising Technologies in the Field of Addiction Recovery: Highlights of Emerging Benefits ournal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. 10(4):331-338, 2010

Zaghi, Soroush, Acar, Mariana, Hultgren, Brittney, Boggio, Paulo S. and Felipe Fregni Noninvasive Brain Stimulation with Low-Intensity Electrical Currents: Putative Mechanisms of Action for Direct Current and Alternating Current Stimulation Neuroscientist Online First. December, 2009, 24 pp.

Mellen, Ron R. and Gillilan, Jason Inmate Violence, Officer Protection and CES Southern Concourse, 28, Summer 2009

Kirsch, Daniel L. CES for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Practical Pain Management, 8(6):70-77, 2008

Farina Woodbury, Michael A. Efecto de la Microcorriente Sobre Síntomas, de Ansiedad, Depresión, Insomnio y Dolor. Galanus, 1(5):15-18, 2008.

Kirsch, Daniel L. CES in the Treatment of Pain-Related Disorders Practical Pain Management, 8(3):12-25, 2008

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall CES in the Treatment of Insomnia: A Review and Meta-Analysis Practical Pain Management, 7(7):28-39, 2007

Tan Gabriel and Jensen Mark P. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Into Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Treatment In Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Management: a Guidebook for Program Development and Excellence of Treatment. Schatman and Campbell (editors), Taylor & Francis, Pp. 75-99, 2007

Gilula, Marshall Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and Fibromyalgia Expert Review of Devices, 4(4):489-495, 2007

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Depression – Part 1 Practical Pain Management, 7(4):33-41, 2007

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Depression – Part 2 Practical Pain Management, 7(5):32-40, 2007

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall A Review and Meta-Analysis of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders – Part 1 Practical Pain Management, 7(2):40-47, 2007

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Gilula, Marshall Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Statistical Considerations – Part 2 Practical Pain Management, 7(3):22-39, 2007

Tan, Gabriel, Alverez, Julie A., and Jensen, Mark P. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Approaches in Pain Management Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 62(11):1419-1431, 2006

Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Practical Pain Management, 6(6):60-64,2006

Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation For the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia and Other Conditions Insert: Giordano, James. Illustrating how CES works. Natural Medicine, 23:118-120, 2006

Gilula, Marshall F., and Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Review: A Safer Alternative to Psychopharmaceuticals in the Treatment of Depression Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2):7-26, 2005. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation 12th Annual Conference, August 26-29, 2004 in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

Gilula, Marshall F. and Barach, Paul R. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation: a Safe Neuromedical Treatment for Anxiety, Depression or Insomnia Southern Medical Journal. 97(12):1269-1270, 2004

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Smith R. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Anxiety, Depression, Insomnia, Cognitive Dysfunction, and Pain. 44 in Bioelectromagnetic Medicine. Paul J. Rosch, Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, Pp 727-740, 2004.

Mercola, Joseph M. and Kirsch, Daniel L. The Basis for Microcurrent Electrical Therapy in Conventional Medical Practice Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 8(2):107-120, 1995


Kirsch, Daniel L. Electromedical Treatment of Headaches Practical Pain Management, 6(8):58-65, 2006

Kirsch, Daniel L. Microcurrent Electrical Therapy (MET): A Tutorial Practical Pain Management, 6(7):59-64, 2006

Kirsch, Daniel L Why Electromedicine? Practical Pain Management, 6(5):52-54, 2006.

Kirsch, Daniel L. A Practical Protocol for Electromedical Treatment of Pain Chapter 61 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Academy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2002

Full Disclosure of All Alpha-Stim Studies With Negative or Indeterminate Outcomes

Rose, Karen M., Taylor, Ann Gill, Bourguignon, Cheryl Effects of Cranial Electrical Stimulation on Sleep Disturbances, Depressive Symptoms, and Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease Applied Nursing Research, 22:119-125, 2009

Scherder, E., Knol, D., van Someren, E., Deijen, J-B, Binnekade, R., Tilders, F. and Sergeant, J. Effects of low-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17(2):101-108, 2003

Tan, Gabriel, Monga, Trilok, and Thornby, John. Efficacy of Microcurrent Electrical Stimulation on Pain Severity, Psychological Distress, and Disability American Journal of Pain Management, 10(1):35-44, 2000. Unedited abstract with rebuttal to the editor. This is a VA study with a negative outcome (also see Tan, 2006, above, showing this same research group continuing their use of Alpha-Stim® with good results)


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