Speech (expressive language)
Difficulty thinking of the right word to
say or write, or with the naming objects.
Patient may have difficulty naming
everyday objects ("I.... thirsty... cold cubes." instead of
"I'm thirsty, I want water with ice." Test: point to 10 common
objects. Can the patient say all 10 in 1 minute? Can
they spell out (with pencil or letter tiles) all 10 in 5
minutes? Any difficulty with either task suggests possible
clarity/articulation Patient's speech is not not clear
(difficult to understand) even when reading aloud.
Example: May have difficulty
clearly speaking the word for common objects (spoon, fork,
glass). They might even have difficulty reading words
aloud, or repeating the word back after you say it. Test : Ask the patient to speak the
name of each of 10 things you point to. Can they say them
clearly? Can they read the words aloud clearly?
too quickly or slowly
- Dysarthria Might have dysarthria (weakness or
discoordination of the mouth muscles.)
Example: Speech might be slurred. May "run out
of" breath while speaking, or speak too softly.
Test: If you can make them
speak more slowly (maybe one word at a time), is it easier to
-Aphasia, ApraxiaDifficulty reading
numbers out loud clearly.
Test : Have them read aloud some
numbers such as: 3468 or $2,345.52 or a phone
number (540) 951-0623. Try this 5 or 10 times. If they get any
digit wrong, they need help with this.
Voice therapy -DysphoniaDifficulty controlling the pitch and
loudness of the voice.
This is therapy for the
Example: Difficulty with controlling pitch or
loudness of their voice.
Reading Comprehension - Receptive Aphasia
understanding what they read.
Difficulty reading sentences.
Example: Difficulty matching written sentences to pictures.
Difficulty reading . words
Example: Difficulty matching written words to pictures.
Auditory Processing &
Example: They may have trouble understanding
speaking to them. Might have difficulty
comprehending and following spoken instructions. Test : Ask them to put the fork the
left of the plate and the knife in the plate the spoon in the
cup. Ask them a question and show them 4 written answers
and see if they can pick the right answer.
Memory & Reasoning (cognition)
They have difficulty remembering instructions, something
you just told them, etc.
Example: If you ask them to put the glass on
the table and get a napkin out of the drawer, they have
difficulty completing that task.
relationships - CognitionThey have difficulty
understanding how words relate to each other.
Example: They might not realize which word
doesn't belong in the following: Egg, Cheese, Rock,
Ice-cream. Or, if you give them a group (Horse, chicken, mule,
they might have difficulty naming the category (farm
Example: Solving simple problems such as
following cooking recipes or TV schedules, or understanding